Basic installation instructions for netbooting Raspberry Pi clients from a Raspberry Pi OS (formely Raspbian) chroot on an LTSP server.
The LTSP server should already be configured by following the installation page. If booting x86 clients is also required, do that part first as it's easier.
The client configuration is officially documented here. In short:
- To netboot Pi 2, format an SD card with the fat file system and put only bootcode.bin in it. This file can be found in /boot/bootcode.bin inside your Raspberry Pi OS image.
- For Pi 3B, boot from an SD card, run
echo program_usb_boot_mode=1 | sudo tee -a /boot/config.txtand reboot.
- Pi 3B+ supports netbooting out of the box.
- For Pi 4 and Pi 400, boot from a fully updated SD card to get the latest firmware, then run
sudo raspi-configand select
Advanced Options > Boot Order > Network Boot.
Raspberry Pi OS is very optimized for Raspberries, so it's currently a better option than e.g. Ubuntu MATE or other distributions. The easiest way to generate a Raspberry Pi OS chroot isn't with the
debootstrap command, but by downloading an image. You may also follow the Raspberry Pi OS installation guide or you may use
dd to read the SD card from an existing Raspberry Pi installation; to keep the instructions shorter, we assume that in the end you have an uncompressed raspios.img on the LTSP server.
losetup -rP /dev/loop8 2020-12-02-raspios-buster-armhf-full.img mount -o ro /dev/loop8p2 /mnt time cp -a /mnt/. /srv/ltsp/raspios umount /mnt mount -o ro /dev/loop8p1 /mnt cp -a /mnt/. /srv/ltsp/raspios/boot/ umount /mnt losetup -d /dev/loop8
At this point, Raspberry Pi OS should be in
/srv/ltsp/raspios. This chroot isn't ready for netbooting yet, the following commands are needed:
# Go to the chroot in order to use relative directories cd /srv/ltsp/raspios # Mask services that we don't want in netbooting systemctl mask --root=. dhcpcd dphys-swapfile raspi-config resize2fs_once # Remove SD card entries from fstab echo 'proc /proc proc defaults 0 0' >./etc/fstab # Use an appropriate cmdline for NFS_RW netbooting echo 'ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=192.168.67.1:/srv/ltsp/raspios,vers=3,tcp,nolock console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait quiet splash plymouth.ignore-serial-consoles modprobe.blacklist=bcm2835_v4l2' >./boot/cmdline.txt
In ltsp.conf, set RPI_IMAGE to the chroot name. This will be used by
ltsp kernel to generate the appropriate symlinks from
ltsp kernel raspios ltsp initrd ltsp nfs
At this point we're ready to netboot a single client in NFS_RW mode. This means that whatever changes we do on that client, like installing new programs, are directly saved in /srv/ltsp/raspios.
First, export the chroot in NFS read-write mode:
echo '/srv/ltsp/raspios *(rw,async,crossmnt,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash,insecure)' >/etc/exports.d/ltsp-raspios.exports exportfs -ra
You may replace
* with an IP to only allow access to a single client, or you may delete the /etc/exports.d/ltsp-raspios.exports file when you're done, so that there are no security issues.
Now boot a single client, add the LTSP PPA to your sources, and install the client-side packages:
apt install --install-recommends ltsp epoptes-client
At this point our chroot contains the LTSP code and is ready to be netbooted. But it needs a different kernel cmdline than the NFS_RW mode, so run the following commands:
echo 'ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=192.168.67.1:/srv/ltsp/raspios,vers=3,tcp,nolock init=/usr/share/ltsp/client/init/init ltsp.image=images/raspios.img console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait quiet splash plymouth.ignore-serial-consoles modprobe.blacklist=bcm2835_v4l2' >/srv/ltsp/raspios/boot/cmdline.txt # Finally, create the squashfs image ltsp image raspios --mksquashfs-params='-comp lzo'
That's it, now you should be able to netboot all your Raspberry Pi clients.