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Coding

Documentation

Man pages for ltsp applets are maintained in markdown format in $SRC/docs. At build time, ronn is used to convert them to man format.

The short usage, ltsp --help $APPLET, comes from man ltsp $APPLET | grep ... and is implemented in the usage() function.

PEP8

Since shell doesn't have something like PEP8, let's apply whatever makes sense from PEP8. For example, 4 spaces indentation.

TODO: heredocs «- use tabs, and also see: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/v4.10/process/coding-style.html#indentation.

Other remarks:

  • Don't use periods for single sentence comments or commit messages. Do use periods for multiple sentences. Start with a capital letter, like in online chat rooms.
  • Don't use quotes for numeric constants, e.g. NAT=0.
  • Use quotes for strings, e.g. HOSTNAME="pc01".
  • Prefer "=" over "-eq" when a variable might not be numeric even by mistake, e.g. if [ "$NAT" = 0 ].

If possible, put everything in /usr/share/ltsp and symlink binaries etc to appropriate places in FHS.

Shell script coding

Shell scripts should be able to run on bash, dash, and busybox ash, and they should produce no output when checked with shellcheck like shellcheck -e SC2039 script.sh. Occasionally, checkbashisms can also be used, but ignore its warnings about "local" and "command -v"; we want these.

Shell script extensions

Use the .sh extension for all shell scripts. Symlink the public binaries in /usr/[s]bin without extensions.

Variable case and visibility

Almost all the code should be inside functions. Most of the variables should be local and lowercase. Global variables that can be defined in the command line or in configuration files should be UPPERCASE, while global variables for internal use should start with an _UNDERSCORE. When subprocesses are spawned, make sure they only have the environment variables they need.

Functions

Applets start with their $applet_cmdline() and $applet_main() functions for readability. The rest of the functions should be alphabetically sorted. Complex functions should be preceded by a comment.

Script directories

Most scripts are organized in directories, and numbered as follows:

  • [0-9][09]|[09][0-9]: site and local admins
  • [1-8][18]|[18][1-8]: distributions, their derivatives and third part programs (sch-scripts, epoptes)
  • [2-7][2-7]: upstream

sort -V is used for ordering, so 44-upstream~distro could be a distro override that runs exactly before 44-upstream, while 44-upstream-distro would run afterwards. Extra numbering can be appended when necessary, e.g. 42-0-config-first, 42-1-config-second. Distro or local scripts with the same name in /etc/ltsp/$applet/ completely override the respective upstream scripts.

Each NN-script.sh is expected to have a main function derived from the script name: main_$script(). All scripts are first sourced before their main functions are executed. This allows for shell function overriding, e.g. an 8x-distro install_package() function would override a 5x-upstream install_package() function.

One of the scripts, ideally the 55-applet.sh, is supposed to provide a function named $applet_cmdline(). This should call getopts to parse the command line and convert it to "$@" with eval set, and then call the run_main_functions() "$@" function, so that all main functions get the correct parameters.